Volumes of studies back Spirulina’s powerful health impact
Spirulina is well known as one of the richest sources of vitamins and minerals that nature has to offer. Now, it’s its potential therapeutic effects are backed by scores of studies and volumes of research.
Spirulina has been used for centuries to boost immunity and energy, support skin, eye and bone health and for overall good health and, Marcus Rohrer Spirulina has been proven to be among the purest and most nutrient rich Spirulina in the world.
Spirulina has been endorsed by the United Nations World Food Conference as “one of the best foods for the future¹”.
Widely dubbed as a “superfood”, Spirulina has also been declared by Nasa as en excellent, compact space food for astronauts².
The World Health Organisation has described Spirulina as a “very suitable food³” noting that it is rich in iron and protein and can be administered to children without any risk.
It is commonly accepted that Spirulina contains the most remarkable concentration of nutrients known in any plant?, notably:
- It comprises 60% vegetable and complete protein – vastly superior to other typical plant protein.
- Vitamins – it contains more carotenoids than any other wholefood.
- It is the richest vegetable source of bioactive vitamin B12, vitamin K1 & K2 among others.
- It contains 96 minerals and trace elements.
- It is packed with chlorophyll.
- It contains high levels of phycocyanin, a special phytonutrient and strong antioxidant.
- It contains various enzymes including SOD.
- It’s the richest natural source of gamma linolenic acid (GLA).
Three grams of Marcus Rohrer Spirulina provides?:
- 10.000 IU of vitamin A (= 200 % RDA*)
- 9 mcg of vitamin B12 (= 150 % RDA*)
- 60 mcg of vitamin K (= 75 % RDA*)
- 6,5 mg of iron (= 65 % RDA*)
- 0,4 mg of manganese (= 20 %RDA*)
RDA = Recommended Daily Allowance (EFSA, European Food Safety Authority)
Studies have shown that Spiruilna is exceptionally nutrient dense.
Note the nutrient profile of Spirulina below vs other foods (compared per weight):
• 180% more calcium than whole milk
• 670% more protein than tofu
• 3100% more beta carotene than carrots
• 5100% more iron than spinach
• more antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in 3 g of Spirulina than in five servings of fruits and vegetables
In addition, Spriulina is easily digested and absorbed – it does not have a hard cell wall like other plants but a cellulose free, soft cell wall, making it easily digested and absorbed. This makes it suitable for people with a weak digestive system, poor absorption due to gut problems and the elderly and chronically ill.
It is also strongly alkalising, helping restore the body’s ph balance, and has an extremely high anti-oxidant capacity through the following:
- Beta Carotene: carotenoid for skin, eyes, mucous membranes, immune system & safe source of vitamin A
- Zeaxanthin: special carotenoid, fights free radical damage with specific benefits for eye health and brain health (crosses blood brain barrier)
- Phycocyanin: photosynthetic pigment, strong antioxidant, promotes liver and kidney health, rarely found in foods
- Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD): excellent free radical scavenger, helps to repair cells, slows down age related degeneration
- Manganese: needed to form body own SOD
- Tocopherols: (vit E) – B1 – B5 – B12 – zinc – selenium
The following are recognised potential therapeutic applications of Spirulina
- Prevention of infections ???
- Inhibition of HIV ¹??²²
- Prevention of cancer ²³?²?
- Prevention of cardiovascular disease²??³¹
- Better management of type 2 diabetes³²
- Prevention of neurodegenerative diseases ³³?³?
- Prevention of Age Related Macular Disease³?
- Prevention of liver disease and NASH³????
- Anemia ?????
- Heavy metal removal – Prevention of kidney disease
Marcus Rohrer Spirulina is available at XXX
For more info, contact Giulia Criscuolo on: cell no
References and additional research:
- United Nations World Food Conference (1974). As reported on the Intergovernmental Institution for the Use of Microalgae Spirulina Against Malnutrition (Permanent Observer to the United Nations Economic and Social Council)
- Henrikson R (1989). Earth Food Spirulina Ronore Enterprises, Inc ISNB 0-9623111-0-3
- United Nations World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland June 8Th, 1993
- Prof. Osmond Ifeanyi Onyeka, Global Foundation for Integrative Medicine in Santa Fe New Mexico, United States
- Certificate of Analysis. Spirulina Powder. Cyanotech Corporation 73-4460 Queen Kaahumanu Highway, #102, Kailua-Kona Hawaii 96740 United States
- Carlo Selmi, Patrick SC Leung, Laura Fischer, Bruce German, Chen-Yen Yang, Thomas P Kenny,Gerry R Cysewski and M Eric Gershwin. The effects of Spirulina on anemia and immune function in senior citizens; Cellular & Molecular Immunology (2011), 1–7.
- Hirahashi T, Matsumoto M, Hazeki K, Saeki Y, Ui M, Seya T (2002). Activation of the human innate immune system by Spirulina: augmentation of interferon production and NK cytotoxicity by oral administration of hot water extract of Spirulina platensis Internat Immunopharmacol 2(4) 423-434
- Hayashi T. & Hayashi K., et al. American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy. Calcium Spirulan, an Inhibitor of Enveloped Virus Replication, from a Blue-Green Alga Spirulina platensis, Journal of Natural Products. 1996; 59(1):83-87.
- Lobner M, Walsted A, Larsen R, Bendtzen K, Nielsen CH (2008). Enhancement of human adaptive immune responses by administration of a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide extract from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis. J Med Food11(2) 313-322
- Gustafson K, et al. AIDS-Antiviral sufolipids from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Journal of the National Cancer Institute, August 16, 1989: p 1254.
- Kataoka, N. and Misaki, A. Glycolipids isolated from Spirulina maxima: structure and fatty acid composition. Agric.Biol. Chem. 1983;47(10):2349-55.
- Van Herpen Venkataraman, L.V. and Becker, E.W. Biotechnology x Utilization of Algae- The Indian Experience. Sharada Press, Mangalore, India, 1985, p 114-115.
- Boyd, M, Gustafson, K. et al. Cyanovirin-N, a novel HIV-inactivating protein that targets viral GP120. Am. Soc. of Pharmacognosy, UC Santa Cruz. July, 1996: 27-31.
- Teas J, Hebert JR, Fitton JH, Zimba PV (2004). Algae – a poor man’s HAART? Med Hypothesis 64(4) 507-510
- Ayehunie S., Belay A., Hu Y., Baba T., Ruprecht R., “Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis)” 7th IAAA Conference, Knysna, South Africa April 17, 1996.
- Hayashi T. & Hayashi K., et al. American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy. Calcium Spirulan, an Inhibitor of Enveloped Virus Replication, from a Blue-Green Alga Spirulina platensis. , Journal of Natural Products. 1996; 59(1):83-87.
- Hayashi K., et al. An Extract from Spirulina platensis is a Selective Inhibitor of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Penetration into HeLa Cells. Phytotherapy Research. 1993;7:76-80.
- Ayehunie S, Belay A, Baba TW, Ruprecht RM. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis). J Acquir Immune Defic Synd Hum Retrovirol 1998, 18: 7–12.
- Hayashi K, Hayashi T, Kojima I (1996). A natural sulfated polysaccharide, Calcium Spirulan, isolated from Spirulina platensis: In vitro and ex vivo evaluation of anti-herpes simplex virus and anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities. Aids Res Human Retroviruses 12(15) 1463-147
- Regression of experimental hamster cancer by beta carotene and algae extracts. Schwartz J, and Shklar G. J Oral Maxillofacial. Surg 45(6) 510-515; 1987.
- Prevention of experimental oral cancer by extracts of Spirulina-Dunaliella algae. Schwartz J , Shklar G, Reid S, Trickier D. Nutr Cancer11 (2) 127-134; 1988.
- Evaluation of chemoprevention of oral cancer with Spirulina fusiformis. Mathew B, Sankaranarayanan R, Nair PP, Varghese C, Somanathan T, Amma BP, Amma NS, Nair MK. Nutr Cancer24(2} 197-202; 1995.
- Mishima T, Marata J, Toyoshima M, Fujii H et al (1998). Inhibition of tumor invasion and metastasis by calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a novel sulfated polysaccharide derived from a blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis. Clin Exp Metas 16(6) 541-550
- Zhang HQ, Lin AP, Sun Y, Deng YM (2001). Chemo- and radio-protective effects of polysaccharide of Spirulina platensis on hemopoietic system of mice and dogs. Acta Pharmacol Sinica 22(12) 1121-1124.
- Subbashini J, Mahipal SV, Reddy MC, Mallikarjuna Reddy M, Rachamallu A, Reddanna P (2004). Molecular mechanisms in C-Phycocyanin induced apoptosis in human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K-562. Biochem Pharmacol 68(3) 453-462
- Roy KR, Arunasree KM, Reddy NP, Dheeraj B et al (2007). Alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential by Spirulina platensis C-phycocyanin induces apoptosis in the doxorubicinresistant human hepatocellular-carcinoma cell line HepG2. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 47(Pt 3) 159-167
- Li B, Gao MH, Zhang XC, Chu XM (2006). Molecular immune mechanism of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis induces apoptosis in HeLa cells in vitro. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 43(Pt 3) 155-164
- Chen T, Wong YS (2008). In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of selenium-containing phycocyanin from selenium-enriched Spirulina platensis. J Agricul Food Chem 56(12) 4352-4358
- Effects of Dietary Spirulina on Vascular Reactivity. M.A. Juárez-Oropeza, D. Mascher, P.V. Torres-Durán, J.M. Farias, and M.C. Paredes-Carbajal. Journal of Medicinal Food. February 2009, 12(1): 15-20.
- Antihyperlipemic and antihypertensive effects of Spirulina maxima in an open sample of mexican population: a preliminary report. Patricia V Torres-Duran, Aldo Ferreira-Hermosillo and Marco A Juarez-Oropeza. Lipids health Dis 26: 6-33
- A Novel Protein C-Phycocyanin Plays a Crucial Role in the Hypocholesterolemic Action of Spirulina platensis Concentrate in Rats. Satoshi Nagaoka, Kazuo Shimizu, Hideki Kaneko, Fumi Shibayama, Kensei Morikawa, Yoshihiro Kanamaru, Ayako Otsuka, Tomohiro Hirahashi and Toshimitsu Kato. J. Nutr. 135:2425-2430, October 2005.
- Role of Spirulina in the Control of Glycemia and Lipidemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Panam Parikh, Uliyar Mani, and Uma Iyer. Journal of Medicinal Food. December 2001, 4(4): 193-199.
- Rare carotenoids, (3R)-saproxanthin and (3R,2′S)-myxol, isolated from novel marine bacteria (Flavobacteriaceae) and their antioxidative activities. Shindo K, Kikuta K, Suzuki A, Katsuta A, Kasai H, Yasumoto-Hirose M, Matsuo Y, Misawa N, Takaichi S. Department of Food and Nutrition, Japan Women’s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Tokyo 112-8681, Japan.
- Neuroprotection by Spirulina platensis protean extract and phycocyanin against iron-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Bermejo-Bescós P, Piñero-Estrada E, Villar del Fresno AM. Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
- Spirulina maxima pretreatment partially protects against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine neurotoxicity. Chamorro G, Pérez-Albiter M, Serrano-García N, Mares-Sámano JJ, Rojas P.Nutr Neurosci. 2006 Oct-Dec;9(5-6):207-12.
- Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins. Snodderly DM. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Dec;62(6 Suppl):1448S-1461S.
- Protection by dietary Spirulina platensis against D-galactosamine–and acetaminophen-induced liver injuries. Lu J, Ren DF, Wang JZ, Sanada H, Egashira Y. Br J Nutr. 2010 jan 27:1-4.
- Protective effect of Spirulina against 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide induced toxicity.Viswanadha VP, Sivan S, Rajendra Shenoi R. Mol Biol Rep 2011 Jan;38(1):309-17
- Spirulina maxima prevents induction of fatty liver by carbon tetrachloride in the rat. P. V. Torres-Durán, R. Miranda-Zamora, M. C. Paredes-Carbajal, D. Mascher. Biochem Mol Biol. Int. 1998 Apr, 44(4):787-93
- Studies on the preventive effect of Spirulina maxima on fatty liver development induced by carbon tetrachloride, in the rat. P.V Torres-Durán, R Miranda-Zamora, M.C Paredes-Carbajal, D Mascher, J Blé-Castillo, J.C D??az-Zagoya, M.A Juárez-Oropeza. L Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Feb;64(2):141-7.
- Preventive effect of Spirulina maxima on the fatty liver induced by a fructose-rich diet in the rat, a preliminary report. C. González de Rivera, R. Miranda-Zamora, J.C. Díaz-Zagoya, M.A. Juárez-Oropeza. Life Sci. 1993;53(1):57-61.
- Arthrospira maximaprevents the acute fatty liver induced by the administration of simvastatin, ethanol and a hypercholesterolemic diet to mice. J.L Blé-Castillo, A Rodr??guez-Hernández, R Miranda-Zamora, M.A Juárez-Oropeza, J.C D??az-Zagoya. Life Sci. 2002 Apr 19;70(22):2665-73.
- Hepatoprotective effects of Spirulina maxima in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a case series. Aldo Ferreira-Hermosillo, Patricia V Torres-Duran and Marco A Juarez-Oropeza. J Med case reports. 2010 Apr 7;4:103.
- Clinical and experimental study of spirulina efficacy in chronic diffuse liver diseases.Gorban’ EM, Orynchak MA, Virstiuk NG, Kuprash LP, Pantele?monova TM, Sharabura LB. Lik Sprava. 2000 Sep;(6):89-93.
- Uliyar Mani, V. et al., Effect of spirulina supplementation on blood hemoglobin levels of anemic girls, JFST, 37, 6, 642, 2000.
- Tackeuchi, T., Clinical experiences of administration of spirulina to patients with hypochromic anemia, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan. C.F. National Symposium – Spirulina Ecology, Taxonomy, Technology and Application (ETTA) Shri AMM Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre (MCRC), Madras, India, 1978.
- The effects of spirulina on allergic rhinitis. Cemal Cingi, Meltem Conk-Dalay, Hamdi Cakli and Cengiz Bal. Cingi C, Conk-Dalay M, Cakli H, Bal C. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008 Oct;265(10):1219-23.
- Effects of spirulina based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients. Pao TK, Van de Water J, Gershwin ME. J Med Food 2005;8: 27-30.
- The effect of spirulina in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Labhe R.U., Mani U.V., Iyer U.M., Mishra M., Jani K., Bhattacharya A. J Nutraceutical Functional Medical Foods 2001;3(4):53-62.
Marcus Rohrer Spirulina™ is available in all health shops, pharmacies, Dis-Chem, Clicks, Pick n Pay, Wellness Warehouse and Medi-Rite at the recommended retail price of R129.